Category Archives: Clinical Research

New C.diff drug to be tested on patients for first time

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A new drug aimed at treating potentially deadly Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infections is set to be tested on patients for the first time.

Glasgow-based life sciences firm MGB Biopharma (MGB) said it was preparing to launch a Phase II clinical trial of its anti-bacterial agent MGB-BP-3.

The trial is expected to involve 30 patients based in North America.

All have been diagnosed with C.diff-associated disease (CDAD).

C.diff infections can cause diarrhoea and fever.

They have been a major problem in hospitals around the world, with thousands of deaths in the US alone linked to the bug each year.

The bacteria are able to take over the gut when a course of antibiotics kills off the bugs that normally live there.

MGB’s announcement came after it raised £1.3m from investors for trials of the new drug, which was invented at the University of Strathclyde.

The funding round was led by Edinburgh-based Archangels, with co-funding from a range of sources, including the Scottish Investment Bank, Barwell and Melrose-based Tri Capital.

The cash supplements a £2.7m grant awarded earlier this year by Innovate UK.

MGB said its trial would “evaluate safety and tolerability, efficacy and in particular look for improvement in global (or sustained) cure rates”.

Chief executive Dr Miroslav Ravic said: “We are already witnessing renewed interest in our new anti-bacterial agent and its trial in key medical centres in North America where CDAD is particularly prevalent.

“This offers opportunities both to progress the study rapidly and to attract increased attention to the results for this important trial.”

The company said it was aiming to start the trials in areas of the US and Canada with a high incidence of CDAD early next year.

SOURCE: www.bbc.co.uk/news/

Celgene’s Otezla produces “meaningful benefits” beyond beyond traditional metrics in plaque psoriasis

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Celgene made its voice heard amongst the chorus of new psoriasis data emerging from the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV) Congress in Paris, revealing that Otezla (apremilast) achieved “meaningful improvements” in outcomes of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis that may not be captured by common metrics that focus only on skin clearance, such as the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI).

“Only considering skin clearance may not fully capture the effect a treatment may have on an individual’s disease burden and its impact on daily life,” explained Dr Denis Jullien, Department of Dermatology and Venereology at Edouard Herriot Hospital, and an author of the study. “For example, itching, which is not accounted for by PASI, is cited by over a third of patients as their overriding quality-of-life issue. These new analyses of Otezla studies can help inform both prescribers and patients when evaluating treatment decisions.”

The new findings included a post hoc sub-analysis of the phase 3 ESTEEM 1 trial, examining moderate to severe plaque psoriasis patients who did not achieve a PASI score of 75 after either 32 or 52 weeks of treatment with Otezla during the trial. In this group, over half achieved a 50% reduction in PASI score over the same periods – findings that Celgene argues “may more reliably indicate clinically meaningful benefit” when taken together with disease-specific quality-of-life measures.

For example, the data showed that itching was reduced from baseline by around 30% during weeks 4 to 52 for those who started treatment of Otezla, and during weeks 20 to 52 in patients who were switched form placebo at week 16. Additionally, patients reported an increase of at least five points in the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) over the same period.

“The ESTEEM and UNVEIL clinical trials continue to provide important learnings about Otezla for the treatment of psoriasis as well as quality of life for people who live with this chronic condition,” said Volker Koscielny, Vice President of Global Medical Affairs, Inflammation & Immunology at Celgene. “These sub-analyses of UNVEIL and ESTEEM suggest that appropriate patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis who experience manifestations beyond skin may benefit from treatment with Otezla.”

SOURCE: www.pharmafile.com/news/518748

Can sugar pills actually relieve chronic pain?

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A sugar pill could benefit patients suffering from chronic pain with specific brain anatomy and psychological traits.

Doctors could begin to prescribe sugar pills for some patients suffering from chronic pain, based on their brain anatomy and psychology. The pills are said to reduce their pain as effectively as new powerful pain relief drugs.

Scientists from Northwestern University have shown that they are able to reliably identify patients with chronic pain, that will respond to a sugar placebo pill based on their brain anatomy and psychological characteristics.

The scientists also suggests that it’s not necessary to hide this from the patient.

“Their brain is already tuned to respond,” said senior study author Professor of Physiology at  Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Dr Vania Apkarian.

“They have the appropriate psychology and biology that puts them in a cognitive state that as soon as you say, ‘this may make your pain better,’ their pain gets better.”

“You can tell them, ‘I’m giving you a drug that has no physiological effect but your brain will respond to it,’” he said. “You don’t need to hide it. There is a biology behind the placebo response.”

For the study, 60 patients with chronic back pain were randomised into two groups. The first group did not know whether they received the drug or the placebo, and the second group included people who came to the clinic, but received neither the drug nor the placebo.

The scientists did not study the people receiving the real drug, instead focusing on those receiving the sugar pill. The second group was used a control.

Individuals who had a decrease in their level of pain had similar brain anatomy. The right side of their emotional brain was larger than the left, and they had a larger cortical sensory area than people who were not responsive to the placebo. Psychologically, these individuals were also emotionally self-aware, sensitive to painful situations and mindful of their environment.

The researchers mention three main potential benefits: prescribing non-active drugs rather than active drugs, eliminating the placebo effect from drug trials, and reducing healthcare costs.

“It’s much better to give someone a non-active drug rather than an active drug and get the same result,” Prof Apkarian said. “Most pharmacological treatments have long-term adverse effects or addictive properties. Placebo becomes as good an option for treatment as any drug we have on the market.”

“Clinicians who are treating chronic pain patients should seriously consider that some will get as good a response to a sugar pill as any other drug,” he concluded. “They should use it and see the outcome. This opens up a whole new field.”

The study was published in Nature Communications.

SOURCE: www.europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com/news/79045

Gilead, Galapagos JAK inhibitor clears phase II test

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A mid-stage trial of Gilead and Galapagos’ JAK1 inhibitor filgotinib has set up a phase III programme for the drug in ankylosing spondylitis as it chases down two already-marketed dugs from Pfizer and Eli Lilly – and a late-stage rival from AbbVie.

In the TORTUGA trial, filgotinib met its clinical objective of reducing disease activity scores compared to placebo in patients with AS, a severe form of arthritis affecting the spine, with more patients achieving the target 20% improvement with the drug (76%) than in the control group (40%).

The drug is also in development for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease with phase III trials already underway in those indications and results due in the coming weeks.

The drug was generally well-tolerated in TORTUGA but one case of deep vein thrombosis gave investors some cause for concern, putting some pressure on Gilead and Galapagos’ share price yesterday before share staged a partial recovery.

DVT is a recognised side effect with Eli Lilly’s JAK1 inhibitor Olumiant(baricitinib), which finally made it to market for rheumatoid arthritis in Europe last year but was rejected in the US at its first filing attempt over the safety issue. Gilead said that in the phase II AS trial the patient had an inherited condition that raised the risk of blood clots and the DVT was not thought to be drug-related.

First-to-market JAK inhibitor Xeljanz (tofacitinib) from Pfizer has already achieved $1bn-plus sales in RA, and with Olumiant somewhat hamstring by the safety issue on its label analysts are viewing the tussle between filgotinib and AbbVie’s upadacitinib as the next big battleground in the JAK inhibitor market.

AbbVie is a little ahead in the race to market, with phase III data in hand showing that upadacitinib is more effective than AbbVie’s $18bn-a-year injectable TNF blocker Humira (adalimumab) in RA when it comes to clinical responses gauged by doctors and patients. Like filgotinib, upadacitinib is also being tested in a string of other indications, including psoriatic arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and atopic dermatitis.

The rivalry is particularly strong as AbbVie was formerly Gilead’s partner for filgotinib, before ducking out of the collaboration and throwing its weight behind its in-house candidate.

SOURCE: http://www.pmlive.com/pharma_news

Can pharma halt the world’s obesity crisis?

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Major research published in the Lancet this week comes as no surprise, but the findings are still sobering: across the world there are too many people who are not doing enough exercise, putting themselves at risk of diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

The research published in Lancet Global Health showed that more than a quarter (1.4 billion) adults are at risk from not doing enough physical activity – these diseases are hugely costly to society and to individuals affected.

The levels of insufficient physical activity varied widely across income groups – 16% in low-income countries, compared with 37% in high-income countries.

And in 55 (33%) of 168 countries, more than a third of the population was insufficiently active according to the figures collated in 2016.

In four countries more than half of adults were insufficiently active – Kuwait (67%), American Samoa (53%), Saudi Arabia (53%) and Iraq (52%).

But the regions with the highest increase in insufficient activity over time were high-income Western countries (from 31% in 2001 to 37% in 2016), and Latin America and the Caribbean (33% to 39%).

Countries from these regions driving this trend include Germany, New Zealand, the USA, Argentina, and Brazil.

Authors also identified several socioeconomic forces at work behind the problem – including urbanisation, sedentary occupations, and motorised transport in the richer countries where lack of exercise is most prevalent.

This research will be of interest to the pharma companies that are attempting to tackle diabetes and obesity related diseases, not just with medications but by working with governments to try and influence policy to reduce incidence of the disease.

Leaders in the field such as Novo Nordisk and AstraZeneca are actively campaigning to try and encourage governments to think about how they can encourage people to become more active, and reducing the levels of obesity in society.

With networks of experts in diabetes in countries across the world big pharma companies have realised that there is a huge opportunity to reach out to health systems using corporate social responsibility programmes that aim to tackle the issues outlined in the Lancet research.

For instance Novo has created an initiative entitled “Cities Changing Diabetes” that specifically aims to tackle the problem of “urban diabetes”.

The project involves collecting qualitative and quantitative evidence that could lead to better understanding of the problem and the contributing factors.

It has built up a network of partners across the world, including city leads, city administrations, academia, diabetes associations, health insurances, community centres and business corporations.

So far it has built relations with 16 cities across the world, representing 100 million citizens, including Beirut, Copenhagen, Leicester and Shanghai.

The project is driven by the recognition that the problem with diabetes is only going to get worse unless immediate action is taken.

According to modelling from Novo Nordisk, in order to hold the rise in prevalence at 10%, the world must set itself a target of reducing obesity by 25% by 2045.

Novo organised a Cities Changing Diabetes Summit last year, where it made the call for joint working across sectors and disciplines in order to unite them behind the cause.

Novo has launched an Urban Diabetes Toolbox that gives policy makers tools on how to tackle the problem, including diabetes vulnerability assessment tools, and tips about how to promote healthy living.

AstraZeneca has also been active in this regard, taking part in the multi-year Action in Diabetes initiative and participating in the Global Diabetes Policy Forum in Rome last October.

Now in its third year, the event brought together more than 100 leading global experts in type 2 diabetes care to discuss best practice in policy-making.

Inspired and funded by AstraZeneca, the initiative operates in partnership with the Internatioinal Diabetes Federation, the World Heart Federation, and Primary Care Diabetes Europe, among other organisations.

AstraZeneca’s work aims to demonstrate the interconnectivity between metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal diseases and foster policies that deal with these diseases in an holistic manner.

Eli Lilly is also known for its work in diabetes, and has launched its non-communicable disease partnership with a similar aim.

It has three aims  – piloting new approaches to strengthen diabetes care, advocating to governments for better disease management, and increasing appropriate use of and compliance with medicines to improve outcomes.

The scale of the problem is daunting, but pharma’s focus on raising awareness about the issue, and bringing different stakeholders together towards the common goal of reducing obesity is an example of how industry can help to tackle one of the major social problems of our times.

SOURCE: www.pharmaphorum.com/views-and-analysis

Discovery could lead to higher immunotherapy response rates for bladder cancer patients

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Mount Sinai researchers have discovered that a particular type of cell present in bladder cancer may be the reason why so many patients do not respond to the groundbreaking class of drugs known as PD-1 and PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors, which enable the immune system to attack tumors.

In a study published in August in Nature Communications, the Mount Sinai team reported that stromal cells, a subset of connective tissue cells often found in the tumor environment, may be preventing immune cells known as T-cells from seeking out and destroying the invading cancer. The researchers showed that expression of a set of genes that are typically linked to more aggressive cancers was actually more commonly linked to stromal cells rather than bladder cancer cells themselves. They also showed that tumors with increased expression of these genes, known as epithelial mesenchymal transition genes, did not respond well to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The researchers also found that in such tumors, T-cells were more likely to be separated from cancer cells by the stromal cells, suggesting that the stromal cells may be hindering the ability of the immune cells to reach and eradicate the cancer cells.

“Some bladder cancers may not respond to immunotherapy, even though the body has developed an immune response against them, because the T-cells are prevented from reaching the tumor by stromal cells that create an inhospitable ‘neighborhood,'” said Matthew Galsky, MD, Professor of Medicine and Director of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The Tisch Cancer Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and senior author of the study.

Dr. Galsky and his colleagues are now trying to validate the gene expression identified in their study as a biomarker that could help refine clinical trials and treatment in the future by predicting the level of response or resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. In addition, according to Dr. Galsky, the group is identifying ways to “counteract the negative impact of the stromal cells and make that neighborhood more friendly to immune cells so they can finish their job.”

Since they were made available to patients about four years ago, immune checkpoint inhibitors have changed the treatment landscape for many types of cancer, particularly metastatic bladder cancer, which had gone several decades without significant therapeutic advances. While five different PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors have since been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, responses are achieved in only 15 percent to 25 percent of patients. Cancer researchers have turned their attention to attempting to learn why and, more specifically, to discovering ways to increase the proportion of patients with positive results.

The Mount Sinai team used several data sets for their study, including genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas’ bladder cancer dataset from the National Cancer Institute. In addition, in collaboration with researchers from Bristol-Myers Squibb, they demonstrated the potential clinical relevance of their findings in a large clinical trial dataset derived from patients with metastatic bladder cancer treated with the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab.

“Our biologists and biostatisticians were able to harness ‘big data’ to generate valuable insights into responses and resistance to PD-1 therapies,” noted study co-author Jun Zhu, Ph.D., Professor in the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Head of Data Sciences at Sema4, a Mount Sinai venture. “We strongly believe those results will inform future studies at Mount Sinai and elsewhere.”

Dr. Galsky added, “What our group has done is add another important piece to a larger jigsaw puzzle about why PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors don’t work in some patients. Through our work we have supported and extended important observations made by other researchers, and this makes us more confident than ever that we are on the right track to addressing a huge unmet need for patients with bladder cancer.”

Explore further: Simultaneous chemo and immunotherapy may be better for some with metastatic bladder cancer

SOURCE: www.medicalxpress.com/news

Ionis/Akcea’s ultra-rare disease drug rejected by FDA

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The FDA has opted to refuse approval to Akcea and Ionis’ Waylivra (volanesorsen) for the treatment of the ultra-rare hereditary condition familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS), despite the submission of Phase 3 data from the largest-ever study of the disease.

The US regulator alerted the manufacturers via a complete response letter (CRL), originating from its Division of Metabolism and Endocrinology Products, but the reason for the rejection was not given. Submitted data had shown that Waylivra reduced triglycerides by 94% in patients compared to placebo, which raised levels by 18%

FCS is characterised by extremely elevated triglyceride levels in the blood – levels which can’t be adequately metabolised due to a deficiency off lipoprotein lipase; it severely impacts daily life and can cause a range of damaging conditions including unpredictable and potentially fatal acute pancreatitis, chronic complications due to permanent organ damage.

“We are extremely disappointed with the FDA’s decision. FCS is an ultra-rare and debilitating disease. Our disappointment extends to the patient and physician community who currently do not have a treatment available to them,” commented Paula Soteropoulos, Chief Executive Officer of Akcea Therapeutics. “We continue to feel strongly that Waylivra demonstrates a favourable benefit/risk profile in people with FCS as was reflected in the positive outcome from our Advisory Committee hearing in May. We will continue to work with the FDA to confirm the path forward.”

Dr Brett P Monia, Chief Operating Officer of Ionis Pharmaceuticals, added: “We are fully supportive of WAYLIVRA and the many patients, physicians and researchers who are working to provide the first therapeutic option for FCS, a truly life-altering disease that deserves a treatment.”

SOURCE: www.pharmafile.com/news/518434

Researchers develop anti-nicotine addiction drugs

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Washington State University researchers have developed an array of drug candidates which they believe may help tackle addiction to nicotine.

The drugs, outlined in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, target CYP2A6, a liver enzyme which metabolises nicotine. The researchers aim to slow the process through which nicotine is metabolised by inhibiting CYP2A6. As such nicotine would last longer in the body and thus people would experience fewer cravings and withdrawal symptoms.

One of the researchers Dr Philip Lazurus explained that “Nicotine in the body will get metabolized and excreted and it can be a fast turnover in some people. What we are trying to do is prevent the turnover and metabolism of it.”

However blocking the enzyme CYP2A6 is in many ways the easy part. Making sure the inhibitor doesn’t interfere with other processes is much harder. As such with over 600 possible inhibitors the process became one of trial and error as candidates which affected other processes were gradually excluded. Nevertheless the researchers were able to narrow the list of potential candidates to just 18 different compounds.

Travis Denton, a former tobacco chewer who led the study commented: “I quit cold turkey and I know how hard it is. Would this have helped? I believe so, because again, the people who want to quit, really want to quit,” he said. “They just can’t because it’s too doggone hard. Imagine if you could take this pill and your jitters don’t come on as fast — it’s just super reinforcing to help you quit”

Once the drug candidates are verified as safe by the FDA, clinical trials can begin.

SOURCE: www.pharmafile.com/news/518432

From molecule to medicine, the importance of persistence

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Here, Dr Sheuli Porkess, deputy chief scientific officer, Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (ABPI), outlines how the pharmaceutical industry takes a substance from molecule to medicine and how the process requires persistence.

A report last week from the Office of Health Economics (OHE) shows the amazing impact medicines have had on the NHS and more widely. The antipsychotic chlorpromazine, first used in the NHS in 1954, paved the way for deinstitutionalisation and community-based care for people with mental illness. In 1948, there were almost 400,000 cases of measles in England and Wales, and 327 people died. By 2015 the number of cases of measles in England and Wales had fallen below 1,200.

These medicines, and others, had a variety of benefits including better clinical outcomes, saving lives, improving quality of life, greater health service efficiency and wider societal impacts. But making medicines is a complicated and costly business. It costs billions of pounds and can take decades. Successes can change the world; failures are an inevitable part of the discovery and development process. But when medicines get through the development process, they can clearly change millions of lives.

There are broadly three stages to creating a new medicine: research, development and approval. Here’s how it works:

Drug discovery and development

The process usually starts with chemical compounds or biological molecules. With advances in technology over the last few years, we can screen compounds that have the potential to become treatments faster than ever before. AstraZeneca — a British pharmaceutical company — launched a new screening robot in 2016 called ‘NiCoLA-B’ which is able to test 300,000 compounds a day. Its job is to find those chemicals that show the slightest potential of being useful as a medicine.

The research stage benefits hugely from collaborative partnerships between the pharmaceutical industry, charities and universities, all working together to find a potential medicine. This stage can take four to five years and takes about 22% of the total budget it takes to find a treatment. Each compound has a less than 0.01% chance of success.

Preclinical research

From a batch of about 10,000 compounds screened in the drug discovery phase, only about 10–20 go into the pre-clinical phase, where scientists determine how safe a medicine might be through testing in cells and animals as well as using computational models.

Clinical research

If any of those 10-20 compounds show real potential of being turned into something useful, they’re developed in to a medicine that will move into clinical trial stage. There are three steps: Phase I involves about 20 to 100 volunteers. If medicines are successful here, they will move onto Phase II where they are tested in people with the disease.

Phase III can include up to 5,000 patients. Going through the three phases can take six or seven years. Over half, or about 65%, of the money it takes to make a medicine is spent in the development stage.

Phase IV clinical trials are after the medicine has a licence and are there to help monitor the medicine’s safety and help clinicians better understand how the medicine works in everyday life, not just in clinical trials.

Approval

The final stage is when regulators review the medicine and it can get ‘market authorisation’ — which shows the medicine is safe and effective. By this point, the manufacturing of the medicine has been scaled up. Only one medicine of 5,000–10,000 compounds discovered will make it to this stage.

The approval processes last anywhere from six months to two years. The medicine is continually monitored once it starts being prescribed for patients.

Researching and developing medicines takes a lot of time and work along the way; there is no guarantee that any particular medicine will make it through the various stages of this highly regulated process. The process is fascinating and once medicines get through this system, their impact can be huge.

Of course, the pharmaceutical industry is pioneering new ways to find treatments. The future looks exciting and how we detect, diagnose and treat disease is set to change significantly.

Advances in medical technology and the miniaturisation of diagnostics, wearables and devices will have a huge impact on our lives and could help people with chronic diseases to remain out of hospital.

Advances in understanding how cells monitor and repair damaged DNA enables us to develop game-changing treatments for cancer. Progress in immuno-oncology sees patients own immune cells used to attack cancer cells, and stem cell therapy is treating rare sight conditions.

We see AI and synthetic biology used for treating malaria, HIV and hepatitis. Gene-editing technology is happening in labs right now, identifying new disease targets, accelerating the discovery of novel treatments.

Passionate pioneers, such as those who invented the groundbreaking treatments in the report, have always been at the heart of our industry and it’s exciting to imagine what their successors could achieve in the next 70 years.

SOURCE: www.epmmagazine.com/opinion

Demographic shifts create biotechnology opportunities

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Ageing populations which are increasingly wealthy means opportunities for biotech and healthcare investors.

Globally, populations are rapidly growing, ageing and becoming richer. It is estimated that within 25 years, the number of over 65s in Asia will exceed the total populations of the eurozone and US combined.

This progression, accompanied by declining birth rates in the developed world, is creating a growing demographic imbalance. Simultaneously, incomes are rising in developing economies, so emerging market consumers are increasingly entering the global middle class.

When populations become wealthier, healthcare spending infallibly increases and pockets of new healthcare needs (in response to lifestyle changes) often emerge. The consequences of these demographic shifts – both current and emerging – include far greater pressures on healthcare and a greater reliance on the private sector to provide care solutions.

Against this backdrop, biotechnology (or biotech) businesses can minimise the strain of (and theoretically profit from) global demographic adjustment. The biotech sector is broad-based, but primarily seeks to improve healthcare and treat disease through clinical research and drug development. Crucially for long-term investors, the sector also benefits from the relatively non-discretionary nature of demand for its products and services.

We have been taking advantage of these opportunities since 2016, when we began investing in an actively managed healthcare and biotech investment trust. We see high growth potential and strong structural tailwinds in the industry, and have since added to our exposure by investing in a passive exchange-traded fund (ETF) tracking the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index.

Having fallen sharply between late 2014 and 2016, the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index has been tracking steadily upward ever since. Despite its considerable growth potential and solid performance since 2017, the sector continues to trade at relatively attractive valuations; since the 2014-2016 sell-off, the sector’s price-to-earnings ratio has languished below that of the broader market for the first time in history.

As any excess capital is generally reinvested into further research and development, the majority of returns from the biotech sector are driven by mergers and acquisition activity and – crucially – the number of new drug approvals in a given year. The latter is positive news for investors, as approvals are on track for near-record levels in 2018, backing up strong years in 2015 and 2017.

For the sector’s world leaders in the US, biotech activities are tightly regulated by the Food and Drugs Agency (FDA). However, in a characteristically controversial manoeuvre, President Trump recently found himself on the biotech frontline when signing the ‘Right-to-try’ law – legislation permitting terminally ill patients to bypass the FDA to gain faster, unhindered access to experimental treatments. While not universally supported, and not without ethical constraints, the act should widen the pipeline of information on the effectiveness of potential new treatments. In turn, this could accelerate decision making over the fate of these new drugs. 

As with all sectors, biotech has its weaknesses. The most commonly highlighted risks are the binary nature of research results and the subsequent price movements in individual companies. More recently, political pressure to address fears around drug pricing is also mounting.

Mindful of these risks, but also seeking to harness biotech’s many compelling opportunities, our diversified positioning aims to limit the portfolios’ exposure to stock-specific risk, while allowing access to the benefits of powerful demographic shifts.

SOURCE: www.moneyobserver.com/demographic-shifts-create-biotechnology-opportunities